Want to know how fast your car's going? It's easy—just glance at the speedometer! Speed is
a handy measurement that tells you how quickly you can get
from one place to another. A car's top speed is generally a good indication of how powerful
an engine it
has, but assuming everyone stays within the speed limit, maximum
speeds are just numbers on paper—little or no use to anyone.
Acceleration is much more interesting than speed and more useful if you need to get out of danger behind the wheel: it's
how quickly something can speed up or slow down. Measuring acceleration is a bit
more tricky than measuring speed because it involves figuring out how
speed changes over a period of time. How do you measure
acceleration? Not surprisingly, with a device called an
accelerometer. Once upon a time you'd have found gadgets like this
only in space rockets or jumbo jets; now they're in virtually every
car, many laptop computers, and all kinds of gadgets such as
iPods, iPhones, and the Nintendo Wii. Let's take a closer look at what they are, what
they do, and how they work!
Photo: A typical MEMS-type accelerometer and gyroscope chip designed for use with a Raspberry Pi and Arduino.
Accelerometers are the stuff of rocket science—quite literally! Mounted in spacecraft,
they're a handy way to measure not just changes in rocket speed but
also apogee (when a craft is at its maximum distance from Earth or
another mass, so its acceleration due to gravity is at a minimum) and orientation (because tilting something changes the way gravity acts on it and the force it feels). Accelerometers are
also widely used in inertial navigation and guidance systems
in such things as airplane and ship autopilots.
Another very common use in transportation is in automobile airbags: when an accelerometer detects a sudden change in a car's speed, signaling an imminent collision, it triggers an electrical circuit that makes the airbags inflate.
If you have a modern cellphone,
MP3 player, or handheld
games console, it probably has an accelerometer built into it so it
can sense when you tilt it from side to side. That's how an iPhone or an iPod
Touch automatically figures out when to switch the screen layout from portrait to landscape.
Many games and "apps" designed for gadgets such as iPhones work by sensing how hard or how fast
you move or shake the case using tiny accelerometer chips inside.
Photo: This way up! How does your cellphone know which direction to rotate the display? It's all done with accelerometers hidden inside the case.
You'd be surprised at some of the things accelerometers are used for.
Did you know, for example, that hi-tech
clothes washing machines
have accelerometers that can detect when the load is out of balance
and switch off the electric motor to stop them from spinning themselves to pieces?
Or that heating appliances, such as electronic irons and fan heaters, have accelerometers inside that detect when they fall over and switch them off to stop them causing fires?
Amazing, eh? Isn't rocket science useful!
What is acceleration?
Before you can understand accelerometers, you really need to understand
acceleration—so let's have a quick recap. If you have a car that
accelerates from a standstill to a speed (or, strictly speaking,
velocity) of 100km/h in 5 seconds, the acceleration is the change in
velocity or speed divided by the time—so 100/5 or 20 km/h per
second. In other words, each second the car is driving, it adds
another 20km/h to its speed. If you're sitting inside this car, you
could measure the acceleration using a stopwatch and the car's
speedometer. Simply read the speedometer after 5 seconds, divide the
reading by 5, and you get the acceleration.
But what if you want to know the acceleration moment by moment, without waiting for a
certain time to elapse? If you know about the laws of motion, you'll
know that the brilliant English scientist Isaac Newton defined
acceleration in a different way by relating it to mass and force. If
you have a certain force (say, the power in your leg as you kick it
outward) and you apply it to a mass (a soccer ball), you'll
make the mass accelerate—the ball will shoot off into the air.
Photo: Acceleration happens when you apply a force to an object—like kicking a soccer ball. The acceleration is a measure of how much the ball's speed changes in a certain time. Less obviously, it's also a measure of how much force you apply to every kilogram of mass that the object contains. Photo by RJ Stratchko courtesy of
US Navy and
Newton's second law of motion relates force, mass, and acceleration through this very simple equation:
Force = mass x acceleration
F = m a
a = F / m
In other words, acceleration is the amount of force we need to move each
unit of mass. Looking at this equation, you can see why soccer balls work the
way they do: the harder you kick (the more the force), or the lighter the ball (the less the mass), the
more acceleration you'll produce—and the faster the ball will fly through the sky.
You can also see we now have a second way of calculating
acceleration that doesn't involve distance, speed, or time. If we can
measure the force that's acting on something and also its mass, we
can figure out its acceleration simply by dividing the force by the
mass. No need to measure speed or time at all!
How do accelerometers work?
Photo: An electrician solders broken wires connected to an accelerometer in a Seahawk helicopter. Photo by Prince A. Hughes III courtesy of US Navy and
This equation is the theory behind accelerometers: they measure
acceleration not by calculating how speed changes over time but by
measuring force. How do they do that?
Generally speaking, by sensing how much a mass presses on something when
a force acts on it.
This is something we're all very familiar with when we're in cars. Imagine you're sitting in
the back seat of a car, happily minding your own business, and the driver accelerates
suddenly to pass a slow-moving truck. You feel yourself thumping back
into the seat. Why? Because the car's acceleration makes it move
forward suddenly. You might think you move backward when a car
accelerates forward, but that's an illusion: really what you experience is the
car trying to move off without you and your seat catching you up from behind!
The laws of motion tell us that your body tries to
keep going at a steady speed, but the seat is constantly
pushing into you with a force and making you accelerate instead. The
more the car accelerates, the more force you feel from your seat—and
you really can feel it! Your brain and body work together to make a
reasonably effective accelerometer: the more force your body
experiences, the more acceleration your brain registers from the
difference between your body's movements and those of the car. (And it
picks up useful clues from other sensations, including the rate at
which moving objects pass by the window, the change in sound of the
car's engine, the noise of the air rushing past, and so on.) Moment by
moment, you sense changes in acceleration from changes in sensations
on your body, not by calculating how far you've traveled and how
long it took.
And accelerometers work in broadly the same way.
Types of accelerometers
There are many different types of accelerometers. The mechanical ones are a bit like
scaled-down versions of passengers sitting in cars shifting back and
forth as forces act on them. They have something like a mass attached to a spring
suspended inside an outer casing. When they accelerate, the casing
moves off immediately but the mass lags behind and the spring
stretches with a force that corresponds to the acceleration. The
distance the spring stretches (which is proportional to the
stretching force) can be used to measure the force and the
acceleration in a variety of different ways. Seismometers (used to
measure earthquakes) work in broadly this way, using pens on heavy
masses attached to springs to register earthquake forces. When an
earthquake strikes, it shakes the seismometer cabinet but the pen
(attached to a mass) takes longer to move, so it leaves a jerky trace
on a paper chart.
Artwork: The basic concept of a mechanical accelerometer: as the gray accelerometer box moves from side to side, the mass (red blob) is briefly left behind. But the spring connecting it to the box (red zig-zag) soon pulls it back into position and, as it moves, it draws a trace (blue line) on the paper.
Alternative designs of accelerometers measure force not by making a pen trace on paper but
by generating electrical or magnetic
signals. In piezoresistive accelerometers, the mass is attached to a potentiometer (variable resistor), a bit like a volume control, which turns
an electric current up or down according to the size of the force
acting on it. Capacitors can also be used in accelerometers to measure force in a similar way: if a moving
mass alters the distance between two metal plates, measuring the change in their capacitance gives a measurement of the force that's acting.
Artwork: The broad concept of a capacitive accelerometer: as the gray accelerometer box moves to the right, the red mass is left behind and pushes the blue metal plates closer together, changing their capacitance in a measurable way.
In some accelerometers, piezoelectric crystals such as quartz do the clever work. You have a crystal attached to a mass, so when the accelerometer moves, the mass squeezes the crystal and generates a tiny electric voltage.
Artwork: The basic concept of a piezoelectric accelerometer: as the gray accelerometer box moves right, the mass squeezes the blue piezoelectric crystal (very exaggerated in this picture), which generates a voltage. The bigger the acceleration, the bigger the force, and the greater the current that flows (blue arrows).
In Hall-effect accelerometers, force and acceleration are measured by sensing tiny changes in a magnetic field.
How does a MEMS accelerometer chip work?
The accelerometers you can find inside cellphones clearly don't have gigantic masses bouncing up and down on springs—you'd never fit something so big and clumsy inside a phone! Instead, cellphone accelerometers are based on tiny microchips with all their components chemically etched onto the surface of a piece of silicon.
Technically, these are called MEMS accelerometers, where "MEMS" stands for Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS).
It sounds pretty complex, but it just means a small electrical and mechanical device mounted on a handy silicon chip.
Here's a very simplified illustration of what you'd find in one of these semiconductor accelerometers, as they're also known:
Right in the middle, we have a red electrode (electrical terminal) that has enough mass to move up and down very slightly when you move or tilt the accelerometer.
The electrode is supported by a tiny beam (cantilever) that's rigid enough to hold it but flexible enough to allow it to move.
There's an electrical connection from the cantilever and electrode to the outside of the chip so it can be wired into a circuit.
Below the red electrode, and separated from it by an air gap, there's a second electrode (purple). The air gap between the two electrodes means the red and purple electrodes work together as a capacitor. As you move the accelerometer and the red electrode moves up and down, the distance between the red and purple electrodes changes, and so does the capacitance between them. We're talking about amazingly tiny distances here of a few millionths of a meter (µm, microns). Small bits of insulation (shown as black lines) prevent the red electrode from making direct electrical contact with the purple one if the accelerometer experiences a really big force (a sudden jolt).
In exactly the same way, there's a blue electrode above the red electrode and another air gap making a second capacitor. As before, the distance between the blue and red electrodes (and the capacitance between them) changes as you move the accelerometer.
The electrodes are connected to more electrical terminals at the edges of the chip, again, so it can be wired to a bigger circuit.
Now the amazing thing about capacitors like this is that they're fabricated on single, microscopic chips, with the various different electrodes and electrically conducting layers made from different types of silicon (n-type and p-type, if you're familiar with how silicon is "doped" to make components such as transistors and diodes.)
Make: Arduino Bots and Gadgets by Kimmo and Tero Karvinen. O'Reilly, 2011. One of the six featured projects is a soccer-playing robot controlled by a cellphone accelerometer.
125 Physics Projects for the Evil Genius by Jerry Silver. McGraw Hill Professional, 2009. A variety of home physics experiments, including a number of cunning ways to test force and acceleration. Lots of interesting ideas here for making the basic laws of physics less abstract and dry.
MEMS Accelerometers by Mahmoud Rasras, Ibrahim (Abe) M. Elfadel, Ha Duong Ngo. MDPI, 2019. A practical guide to choosing and using sensors.
Cycling jacket wins design award: BBC Newsbeat, 10 April 2008. This story describes an innovative cycling jacket with built-in accelerometers that power LED brake lights.
How a Smartphone Knows Up from Down: Engineer Guy, 22 May 2012. A simple explanation of iPhone accelerometers from Bill Hammack, the Engineer Guy. Bill explains what accelerometer chips are and how they're etched chemically from silicon.
How-to Tuesday: Arduino 101 Accelerometers: Make Magazine, 7 April 2008. This longer and more complex 7.5-minute video shows you what a typical accelerometer chip (a Memsic) looks like and shows you how easy it is to use with an Arduino electronics board.
[PDF] Accelerometers: Make your own microgravity detector with this step-by-step teacher's guide from NASA.
For much more technical detail, take a look at these accelerometer patents:
US Patent: #5,243,861: Capacitive type semiconductor accelerometer by Benjamin Kloeck et al, Hitachi Ltd. Issued 14 September 1993. A modern-style, chip-based accelerometer that measures acceleration through changes in capacitance caused by a moving cantilever beam. This is a much more detailed description of the type of accelerometer chip described and illustrated in the box up above, covering both how it works and how it's made.
US Patent: #982,336: Measuring instrument by Raymond T. Pierce, Westinghouse. Issued 1 November 1921. A part-mechanical, part-electrical accelerometer with a mechanism that works in a similar way to a centrifugal governor.
US Patent: #1,096,942: Acceleration indicator by Robert Owens, General Electric. Issued 19 May 1914. A device that measures acceleration from the electric current produced by a simple electricity generator, which is used as a measurement of speed.
US Patent: #982,336: Accelerometer by Harry Egerton Wimperis. Issued 24 January 1911. An early mechanical accelerometer that works by using a moving mass to shift a needle round a dial.
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