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A FET transistor on a printed circuit board.

Transistors

by Chris Woodford. Last updated: May 17, 2014.

Your brain contains around 100 billion cells called neurons—the tiny switches that let you think and remember things. Computers contain billions of miniature brain cells as well. They're called transistors and they're made from silicon, a chemical element commonly found in sand. Transistors have revolutionized electronics since they were first invented over half a century ago by John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and William Shockley. But what are they—and how do they work?

Photo: An insect with three legs? No, a typical transistor on an electronic circuit board. Although simple circuits contain individual transistors like this, complex circuits inside computers also contain microchips, each of which might have thousands, millions, or hundreds of millions of transistors packed inside.

What does a transistor actually do?

A transistor is really simple—and really complex. Let's start with the simple part. A transistor is a miniature electronic component that can do two different jobs. It can work either as an amplifier or a switch:

A behind the ear hearing aid

Photo: Compact hearing aids were among the first applications for transistors. Photo by Tyler W. Hill courtesy of U.S. Marine Corps and Defense Imagery.

The great thing about old-style machines was that you could take them apart to figure out how they worked. It was never too hard, with a bit of pushing and poking, to discover which bit did what and how one thing led to another. But electronics is entirely different. It's all about using electrons to control electricity. An electron is a minute particle inside an atom. It's so small, it weighs just under 0.000000000000000000000000000001 kg! The most advanced transistors work by controlling the movements of individual electrons, so you can imagine just how small they are. In a modern computer chip, the size of a fingernail, you'll probably find between 500 million and two billion separate transistors. There's no chance of taking a transistor apart to find out how it works, so we have to understand it with theory and imagination instead. First off, it helps if we know what a transistor is made from.

How is a transistor made?

A silicon wafer

Transistors are made from silicon, a chemical element found in sand, which does not normally conduct electricity (it doesn't allow electrons to flow through it easily). Silicon is a semiconductor, which means it's neither really a conductor (something like a metal that lets electricity flow) nor an insulator (something like plastic that stops electricity flowing). If we treat silicon with impurities (a process known as doping), we can make it behave in a different way. If we dope silicon with the chemical elements arsenic, phosphorus, or antimony, the silicon gains some extra electrons—so electrons flow out of it more naturally. Because electrons have a negative charge, silicon treated this way is called n-type (negative type). We can also dope silicon with other impurities such as boron, gallium, and aluminum. Silicon treated this way will lose some electrons, so electrons in nearby materials will tend to flow into it. A lack of electrons is the same thing as a positive charge, so we call this sort of silicon p-type (positive type

Photo: A wafer of silicon. Photo by courtesy of NASA Glenn Research Center (NASA-GRC).

Silicon sandwiches

We now have two different types of silicon. If we put them together in layers, making sandwiches of p-type and n-type material, we can make different kinds of electronic components that work in all kinds of ways.

Suppose we join a piece of n-type silicon to a piece of p-type silicon and put electrical contacts on either side. Exciting and useful things start to happen at the junction between the two materials. If we turn on the current, we can make electrons flow through the junction from the n-type side to the p-type side and out through the circuit. This happens because the lack of electrons on the p-type side of the junction pulls electrons over from the n-type side and vice-versa. But if we reverse the current, the electrons won't flow at all. What we've made here is called a diode (or rectifier). It's an electronic component that lets current flow through it in only one direction. It's useful if you want to turn alternating (two-way) electric current into direct (one-way) current. Diodes can also be made so they give off light when electricity flows through them. You might have seen these light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on pocket calculators and electronic displays on hi-fi stereo equipment.

How a junction transistor works

Now suppose we use three layers of silicon in our sandwich instead of two. We can either make a p-n-p sandwich (with a slice of n-type silicon as the filling between two slices of p-type) or an n-p-n sandwich (with the p-type in between the two slabs of n-type). If we join electrical contacts to all three layers of the sandwich, we can make a component that will either amplify a current or switch it on or off—in other words, a transistor. Let's how it works in the case of an n-p-n transistor.

So we know what we're talking about, let's give names to the three electrical contacts. We'll call the two contacts joined to the two pieces of n-type silicon the emitter and the collector, and the contact joined to the p-type silicon we'll call the base. When no current is flowing in the transistor, we know the p-type silicon is short of electrons (shown here by the little plus signs, representing positive charges) and the two pieces of n-type silicon have extra electrons (shown by the little minus signs, representing negative charges).

Artwork showing junction transistor in off mode

Another way of looking at this is to say that while the n-type has a surplus of electrons, the p-type has holes where electrons should be. Normally, the holes in the base act like a barrier, preventing any significant current flow flowing from the emitter to the collector and the transistor is in its "off" state.

A transistor works when the electrons and the holes start moving across the two junctions between the n-type and p-type silicon.

Let's connect the transistor up to some power. Suppose we attach a small positive voltage to the base, make the emitter negatively charged, and make the collector positively charged. Electrons are pulled from the emitter into the base—and then from the base into the collector. And the transistor switches to its "on" state:

Artwork showing junction transistor in on mode, with electrons and holes moving across the junctions

The small current that we turn on at the base makes a big current flow between the emitter and the collector. By turning a small input current into a large output current, the transistor acts like an amplifier. But it also acts like a switch at the same time. When there is no current to the base, little or no current flows between the collector and the emitter. Turn on the base current and a big current flows. So the base current switches the whole transistor on and off. Technically, this type of transistor is called bipolar because two different kinds (or "polarities") of electrical charge (negative electrons and positive holes) are involved in making the current flow.

We can also understand a transistor by thinking of it like a pair of diodes. With the base positive and the emitter negative, the base-emitter junction is like a forward-biased diode, with electrons moving in one direction across the junction (from left to right in the diagram) and holes going the opposite way (from right to left). The base-collector junction is like a reverse-biased diode. The positive voltage of the collector pulls most of the electrons through and into the outside circuit (though some electrons do recombine with holes in the base).

How a field-effect transistor (FET) works

All transistors work by controlling the movement of electrons, but not all of them do it the same way. Like a junction transistor, a FET (field effect transistor) has three different terminals—but they have the names source (analogous to the emitter), drain (analogous to the collector), and gate (analogous to the base). In a FET, the layers of n-type and p-type silicon are arranged in a slightly different way and coated with layers of metal and oxide. That gives us a device called a MOSFET (Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor).

artwork showing MOSFET in off mode

Although there are extra electrons in the n-type source and drain, they cannot flow from one to the other because of the holes in the p-type gate in between them. However, if we attach a positive voltage to the gate, an electric field is created there that allows electrons to flow in a thin channel from the source to the drain. This "field effect" allows a current to flow and switches the transistor on:

artwork showing MOSFET in on mode

For the sake of completeness, we could note that a MOSFET is a unipolar transistor because only one kind ("polarity") of electric charge is involved in making it work.

How do transistors work in calculators and computers?

In practice, you don't need to know any of this stuff about electrons and holes unless you're going to design computer chips for a living! All you need to know is that a transistor works like an amplifier or a switch, using a small current to switch on a larger one. But there's one other thing work knowing: how does all this help computers store information and make decisions?

We can put a few transistor switches together to make something called a logic gate, which compares several input currents and gives a different output as a result. Logic gates let computers make very simple decisions using a mathematical technique called Boolean algebra. Your brain makes decisions the same way. For example, using "inputs" (things you know) about the weather and what you have in your hallway, you can make a decision like this: "If it's raining AND I have an umbrella, I will go to the shops". That's an example of Boolean algebra using what's called an AND "operator" (the word operator is just a bit of mathematical jargon to make things seem more complicated than they really are). You can make similar decisions with other operators. "If it's windy OR it's snowing, then I will put on a coat" is an example of using an OR operator. Or how about "If it's raining AND I have an umbrella OR I have a coat then it's okay to go out". Using AND, OR, and other operators called NOR, NOT, and NAND, computers can add up or compare binary numbers. That idea is the foundation stone of computer programs: the logical series of instructions that make computers do things.

Normally, a junction transistor is "off" when there is no base current and switches to "on" when the base current flows. That means it takes an electric current to switch the transistor on or off. But transistors like this can be hooked up with logic gates so their output connections feed back into their inputs. The transistor then stays on even when the base current is removed. Each time a new base current flows, the transistor "flips" on or off. It remains in one of those stable states (either on or off) until another current comes along and flips it the other way. This kind of arrangement is known as a flip-flop and it turns a transistor into a simple memory device that stores a zero (when it's off) or a one (when it's on). Flip-flops are the basic technology behind computer memory chips.

Who invented the transistor?

Two illustrations from the original US patent (2,524,035) drawing of a point contact transistor by John Barden and Walter Brattain.

Transistors were invented at Bell Laboratories in New Jersey in 1947 by three brilliant US physicists: John Bardeen (1908–1991), Walter Brattain (1902–1987), and William Shockley (1910–1989).

The team, led by Shockley, had been trying to develop a new kind of amplifier for the US telephone system—but what they actually invented turned out to have much more widespread applications. Bardeen and Brattain made the first practical transistor (known as a point-contact transistor) on Tuesday, December 16, 1947. Although Shockley had played a large part in the project, he was furious and agitated at being left out. Shortly afterward, during a stay in a hotel at a physics conference, he single-handedly figured out the theory of the junction transistor—a much better device than the point-contact transistor.

While Bardeen quit Bell Labs to become an academic (he went on to enjoy even more success studying superconductors at the University of Illinois), Brattain stayed for a while before retiring to become a teacher. Shockley set up his own transistor-making company and helped to inspire the modern-day phenomenon that is "Silicon Valley" (the prosperous area around Palo Alto, California where electronics corporations have congregated). Two of his employees, Robert Noyce and Gordon Moore, went on to found Intel, the world's biggest micro-chip manufacturer.

Bardeen, Brattain, and Shockley were briefly reunited a few years later when they shared the world's top science award, the 1956 Nobel Prize in Physics, for their discovery. Their story is a riveting tale of intellectual brilliance battling with petty jealousy and it's well worth reading more about. You can find some great accounts of it among the books and websites listed below.

Artwork: The original design of the point-contact transistor, as set out in John Bardeen and Walter Brattain's US patent (2,524,035), filed in June 1948 (about six months after the original discovery) and awarded October 3, 1950. This is a simple PN transistor with a thin upper layer of P-type germanium (yellow) on a lower layer of N-type germanium (orange). The three contacts are emitter (E, red), collector (C, blue), and base (G, green). You can read more in the original patent document, which is listed in the references below.

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We're fortunate to have some surviving archive footage of the three transistor pioneers!

Also from the archives, you might like to watch this video explaining electron tubes—and life before transistors came along:

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Text copyright © Chris Woodford 2007, 2012. All rights reserved. Full copyright notice and terms of use.

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Woodford, Chris. (2007) Transistors. Retrieved from http://www.explainthatstuff.com/howtransistorswork.html. [Accessed (Insert date here)]

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