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A court reporting stenographer dictates into a laptop using a noise-cancelling microphone using automated voice/speech recognition

Speech recognition software

It's just as well people can understand speech. Imagine if you were like a computer: friends would have to "talk" to you by prodding away at a plastic keyboard connected to your brain by a long, curly wire. If you wanted to say "hello" to someone, you'd have to reach out, chatter your fingers over their keyboard, and wait for their eyes to light up; they'd have to do the same to you. Conversations would be a long, slow, elaborate nightmare—a silent dance of fingers on plastic; strange, abstract, and remote. We'd never put up with such clumsiness as humans, so why do we talk to our computers this way?

Scientists have long dreamed of building machines that can chatter and listen just like humans. But although computerized speech recognition has been around for decades, and is now built into most smartphones and PCs, few of us actually use it. Why? Possibly because we never even bother to try it out, working on the assumption that computers could never pull off a trick so complex as understanding the human voice. It's certainly true that speech recognition is a complex problem that's challenged some of the world's best computer scientists, mathematicians, and linguists. How well are they doing at cracking the problem? Will we all be chatting to our PCs one day soon? Let's take a closer look and find out!

Photo: A court reporter dictates notes into a laptop with a noise-cancelling microphone and speech-recogition software. Photo by Micha Pierce courtesy of US Marine Corps and DVIDS.

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  1. What is speech?
  2. How do computers recognize speech?
  3. Seeing speech
  4. Speech recognition: a summary
  5. What can we use speech recognition for?
  6. Will speech recognition ever take off?
  7. Find out more

What is speech?

Language sets people far above our creeping, crawling animal friends. While the more intelligent creatures, such as dogs and dolphins, certainly know how to communicate with sounds, only humans enjoy the rich complexity of language. With just a couple of dozen letters, we can build any number of words (most dictionaries contain tens of thousands) and express an infinite number of thoughts.

Controlling an iPod with its built-in voice recognition.

Photo: Speech recognition has been popping up all over the place for quite a few years now. Even my old iPod Touch (dating from around 2012) has a built-in "voice control" program that let you pick out music just by saying "Play albums by U2," or whatever band you're in the mood for.

When we speak, our voices generate little sound packets called phones (which correspond to the sounds of letters or groups of letters in words); so speaking the word cat produces phones that correspond to the sounds "c," "a," and "t." Although you've probably never heard of these kinds of phones before, you might well be familiar with the related concept of phonemes: simply speaking, phonemes are the basic LEGO™ blocks of sound that all words are built from. Although the difference between phones and phonemes is complex and can be very confusing, this is one "quick-and-dirty" way to remember it: phones are actual bits of sound that we speak (real, concrete things), whereas phonemes are ideal bits of sound we store (in some sense) in our minds (abstract, theoretical sound fragments that are never actually spoken).

Computers and computer models can juggle around with phonemes, but the real bits of speech they analyze always involves processing phones. When we listen to speech, our ears catch phones flying through the air and our leaping brains flip them back into words, sentences, thoughts, and ideas—so quickly, that we often know what people are going to say before the words have fully fled from their mouths. Instant, easy, and quite dazzling, our amazing brains make this seem like a magic trick. And it's perhaps because listening seems so easy to us that we think computers (in many ways even more amazing than brains) should be able to hear, recognize, and decode spoken words as well. If only it were that simple!

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Why is speech so hard to handle?

The trouble is, listening is much harder than it looks (or sounds): there are all sorts of different problems going on at the same time...

On top of all that stuff, there are issues like syntax (the grammatical structure of language) and semantics (the meaning of words) and how they help our brain decode the words we hear, as we hear them. Weighing up all these factors, it's easy to see that recognizing and understanding spoken words in real time (as people speak to us) is an astonishing demonstration of blistering brainpower.

It shouldn't surprise or disappoint us that computers struggle to pull off the same dazzling tricks as our brains; it's quite amazing that they get anywhere near!

A voice dictation microphone

Photo: Using a headset microphone like this makes a huge difference to the accuracy of speech recognition: it reduces background sound, making it much easier for the computer to separate the signal (the all-important words you're speaking) from the noise (everything else).

How do computers recognize speech?

Speech recognition is one of the most complex areas of computer science—and partly because it's interdisciplinary: it involves a mixture of extremely complex linguistics, mathematics, and computing itself. If you read through some of the technical and scientific papers that have been published in this area (a few are listed in the references below), you may well struggle to make sense of the complexity. My objective is to give a rough flavor of how computers recognize speech, so—without any apology whatsoever—I'm going to simplify hugely and miss out most of the details.

Broadly speaking, there are four different approaches a computer can take if it wants to turn spoken sounds into written words:

  1. Simple pattern matching (where each spoken word is recognized in its entirety—the way you instantly recognize a tree or a table without consciously analyzing what you're looking at)
  2. Pattern and feature analysis (where each word is broken into bits and recognized from key features, such as the vowels it contains)
  3. Language modeling and statistical analysis (in which a knowledge of grammar and the probability of certain words or sounds following on from one another is used to speed up recognition and improve accuracy)
  4. Artificial neural networks (brain-like computer models that can reliably recognize patterns, such as word sounds, after exhaustive training).

In practice, the everyday speech recognition we encounter in things like automated call centers, computer dictation software, or smartphone "agents" (like Siri and Cortana) combines a variety of different approaches. For the purposes of understanding clearly how things work, however, it's best to keep things quite separate and think about them one at a time.

1: Simple pattern matching

Clipart style artwork showing a person saying hello to a computer with voice/speech recognition

Ironically, the simplest kind of speech recognition isn't really anything of the sort. You'll have encountered it if you've ever phoned an automated call center and been answered by a computerized switchboard. Utility companies often have systems like this that you can use to leave meter readings, and banks sometimes use them to automate basic services like balance inquiries, statement orders, checkbook requests, and so on. You simply dial a number, wait for a recorded voice to answer, then either key in or speak your account number before pressing more keys (or speaking again) to select what you want to do. Crucially, all you ever get to do is choose one option from a very short list, so the computer at the other end never has to do anything as complex as parsing a sentence (splitting a string of spoken sound into separate words and figuring out their structure), much less trying to understand it; it needs no knowledge of syntax (language structure) or semantics (meaning). In other words, systems like this aren't really recognizing speech at all: they simply have to be able to distinguish between ten different sound patterns (the spoken words zero through nine) either using the bleeping sounds of a Touch-Tone phone keypad (technically called DTMF) or the spoken sounds of your voice.

From a computational point of view, there's not a huge difference between recognizing phone tones and spoken numbers "zero", "one," "two," and so on: in each case, the system could solve the problem by comparing an entire chunk of sound to similar stored patterns in its memory. It's true that there can be quite a bit of variability in how different people say "three" or "four" (they'll speak in a different tone, more or less slowly, with different amounts of background noise) but the ten numbers are sufficiently different from one another for this not to present a huge computational challenge. And if the system can't figure out what you're saying, it's easy enough for the call to be transferred automatically to a human operator.

Voice dialing on a Motorola cellphone.

Photo: Voice-activated dialing on cellphones is little more than simple pattern matching. You simply train the phone to recognize the spoken version of a name in your phonebook. When you say a name, the phone doesn't do any particularly sophisticated analysis; it simply compares the sound pattern with ones you've stored previously and picks the best match. No big deal—which explains why even an old phone like this 2001 Motorola could do it.

2: Pattern and feature analysis

Automated switchboard systems generally work very reliably because they have such tiny vocabularies: usually, just ten words representing the ten basic digits. The vocabulary that a speech system works with is sometimes called its domain. Early speech systems were often optimized to work within very specific domains, such as transcribing doctor's notes, computer programming commands, or legal jargon, which made the speech recognition problem far simpler (because the vocabulary was smaller and technical terms were explicitly trained beforehand). Much like humans, modern speech recognition programs are so good that they work in any domain and can recognize tens of thousands of different words. How do they do it?

Most of us have relatively large vocabularies, made from hundreds of common words ("a," "the," "but" and so on, which we hear many times each day) and thousands of less common ones (like "discombobulate," "crepuscular," "balderdash," or whatever, which we might not hear from one year to the next). Theoretically, you could train a speech recognition system to understand any number of different words, just like an automated switchboard: all you'd need to do would be to get your speaker to read each word three or four times into a microphone, until the computer generalized the sound pattern into something it could recognize reliably.

The trouble with this approach is that it's hugely inefficient. Why learn to recognize every word in the dictionary when all those words are built from the same basic set of sounds? No-one wants to buy an off-the-shelf computer dictation system only to find they have to read three or four times through a dictionary, training it up to recognize every possible word they might ever speak, before they can do anything useful. So what's the alternative? How do humans do it? We don't need to have seen every Ford, Chevrolet, and Cadillac ever manufactured to recognize that an unknown, four-wheeled vehicle is a car: having seen many examples of cars throughout our lives, our brains somehow store what's called a prototype (the generalized concept of a car, something with four wheels, big enough to carry two to four passengers, that creeps down a road) and we figure out that an object we've never seen before is a car by comparing it with the prototype. In much the same way, we don't need to have heard every person on Earth read every word in the dictionary before we can understand what they're saying; somehow we can recognize words by analyzing the key features (or components) of the sounds we hear. Speech recognition systems take the same approach.

The recognition process

Practical speech recognition systems start by listening to a chunk of sound (technically called an utterance) read through a microphone. The first step involves digitizing the sound (so the up-and-down, analog wiggle of the sound waves is turned into digital format, a string of numbers) by a piece of hardware (or software) called an analog-to-digital (A/D) converter (for a basic introduction, see our article on analog versus digital technology). The digital data is converted into a spectrogram (a graph showing how the component frequencies of the sound change in intensity over time) using a mathematical technique called a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT)), then broken into a series of overlapping chunks called acoustic frames, each one typically lasting 1/25 to 1/50 of a second. These are digitally processed in various ways and analyzed to find the components of speech they contain. Assuming we've separated the utterance into words, and identified the key features of each one, all we have to do is compare what we have with a phonetic dictionary (a list of known words and the sound fragments or features from which they're made) and we can identify what's probably been said. Probably is always the word in speech recognition: no-one but the speaker can ever know exactly what was said.)

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Seeing speech

Speech recognition programs start by turning utterances into a spectrogram:

A typical sound spectrogram, comparing three different sounds.

It's a three-dimensional graph:

In this example, I've sung three distinct tones into a microphone, each one lasting about 5–10 seconds, with a bit of silence in between. The first one, shown by the small red area on the left, is the trace for a quiet, low-frequency sound. That's why the graph shows dark colors (reds and purples) concentrated in the bottom of the screen. The second tone, in the middle, is a similar tone to the first but quite a bit louder (which is why the colors appear a bit brighter). The third tone, on the right, has both a higher frequency and intensity. So the trace goes higher up the screen (higher frequencies) and the colors are brighter (more energy).

With a fair bit of practice, you could recognize what someone is saying just by looking at a diagram like this; indeed, it was once believed that deaf and hearing-impaired people might be trained to use spectrograms to help them decode words they couldn't hear.

In theory, since spoken languages are built from only a few dozen phonemes (English uses about 46, while Spanish has only about 24), you could recognize any possible spoken utterance just by learning to pick out phones (or similar key features of spoken language such as formants, which are prominent frequencies that can be used to help identify vowels). Instead of having to recognize the sounds of (maybe) 40,000 words, you'd only need to recognize the 46 basic component sounds (or however many there are in your language), though you'd still need a large phonetic dictionary listing the phonemes that make up each word. This method of analyzing spoken words by identifying phones or phonemes is often called the beads-on-a-string model: a chunk of unknown speech (the string) is recognized by breaking it into phones or bits of phones (the beads); figure out the phones and you can figure out the words.

Most speech recognition programs get better as you use them because they learn as they go along using feedback you give them, either deliberately (by correcting mistakes) or by default (if you don't correct any mistakes, you're effectively saying everything was recognized perfectly—which is also feedback). If you've ever used a program like one of the Dragon dictation systems, you'll be familiar with the way you have to correct your errors straight away to ensure the program continues to work with high accuracy. If you don't correct mistakes, the program assumes it's recognized everything correctly, which means similar mistakes are even more likely to happen next time. If you force the system to go back and tell it which words it should have chosen, it will associate those corrected words with the sounds it heard—and do much better next time.

An example of dictating text into a computer using Dragon Dictate voice recognition software.

Screenshot: With speech dictation programs like Dragon NaturallySpeaking, shown here, it's important to go back and correct your mistakes if you want your words to be recognized accurately in future.

3: Statistical analysis

In practice, recognizing speech is much more complex than simply identifying phones and comparing them to stored patterns, and for a whole variety of reasons:

For something like an off-the-shelf voice dictation program (one that listens to your voice and types your words on the screen), simple pattern recognition is clearly going to be a bit hit and miss. The basic principle of recognizing speech by identifying its component parts certainly holds good, but we can do an even better job of it by taking into account how language really works. In other words, we need to use what's called a language model.

When people speak, they're not simply muttering a series of random sounds. Every word you utter depends on the words that come before or after. For example, unless you're a contrary kind of poet, the word "example" is much more likely to follow words like "for," "an," "better," "good", "bad," and so on than words like "octopus," "table," or even the word "example" itself. Rules of grammar make it unlikely that a noun like "table" will be spoken before another noun ("table example" isn't something we say) while—in English at least—adjectives ("red," "good," "clear") come before nouns and not after them ("good example" is far more probable than "example good"). If a computer is trying to figure out some spoken text and gets as far as hearing "here is a ******* example," it can be reasonably confident that ******* is an adjective and not a noun. So it can use the rules of grammar to exclude nouns like "table" and the probability of pairs like "good example" and "bad example" to make an intelligent guess. If it's already identified a "g" sound instead of a "b", that's an added clue.

Virtually all modern speech recognition systems also use a bit of complex statistical hocus-pocus to help figure out what's being said. The probability of one phone following another, the probability of bits of silence occurring in between phones, and the likelihood of different words following other words are all factored in. Ultimately, the system builds what's called a hidden Markov model (HMM) of each speech segment, which is the computer's best guess at which beads are sitting on the string, based on all the things it's managed to glean from the sound spectrum and all the bits and pieces of phones and silence that it might reasonably contain. It's called a Markov model (or Markov chain), for Russian mathematician Andrey Markov, because it's a sequence of different things (bits of phones, words, or whatever) that change from one to the next with a certain probability. Confusingly, it's referred to as a "hidden" Markov model even though it's worked out in great detail and anything but hidden! "Hidden," in this case, simply means the contents of the model aren't observed directly but figured out indirectly from the sound spectrum. From the computer's viewpoint, speech recognition is always a probabilistic "best guess" and the right answer can never be known until the speaker either accepts or corrects the words that have been recognized. (Markov models can be processed with an extra bit of computer jiggery pokery called the Viterbi algorithm, but that's beyond the scope of this article.)

4: Artificial neural networks

HMMs have dominated speech recognition since the 1970s—for the simple reason that they work so well. But they're by no means the only technique we can use for recognizing speech. There's no reason to believe that the brain itself uses anything like a hidden Markov model. It's much more likely that we figure out what's being said using dense layers of brain cells that excite and suppress one another in intricate, interlinked ways according to the input signals they receive from our cochleas (the parts of our inner ear that recognize different sound frequencies).

Back in the 1980s, computer scientists developed "connectionist" computer models that could mimic how the brain learns to recognize patterns, which became known as artificial neural networks (sometimes called ANNs). A few speech recognition scientists explored using neural networks, but the dominance and effectiveness of HMMs relegated alternative approaches like this to the sidelines. More recently, scientists have explored using ANNs and HMMs side by side and found they give significantly higher accuracy over HMMs used alone.

Artwork showing how a neural network is made up of input, hidden, and output units connected together.

Artwork: Neural networks are hugely simplified, computerized versions of the brain—or a tiny part of it that have inputs (where you feed in information), outputs (where results appear), and hidden units (connecting the two). If you train them with enough examples, they learn by gradually adjusting the strength of the connections between the different layers of units. Once a neural network is fully trained, if you show it an unknown example, it will attempt to recognize what it is based on the examples it's seen before.

Speech recognition: a summary

Summary of the key stages of speech recognition and some of the computational processes that are involved.

Artwork: A summary of some of the key stages of speech recognition and the computational processes happening behind the scenes.

This artwork is a very quick summary of what we've explored so far. The blocks down the center represent the path we follow from hearing an unknown bit of speech (at the top) to confidently declaring what we think has been said (at the bottom). It's a very general summary; not all speech recognition involves all these stages, in this exact order.

The colored ovals down the sides represent some of the key computational processes that get us from unknown utterance to recognized speech. Again, not all of these are used in every speech recognition system, they don't always happen in this order, and there are quite a few other things I've missed out (in an effort to keep my explanation reasonably short and simple). Generally speaking, though, the processes happen where I've positioned them. So the analog to digital and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) stages happen quite early on, while the Hidden Markov Model (HMM) is built later. User feedback happens at the very end and corrects not just the recognized words but also things like the phonetic dictionary (how a certain speaker pronounces each word) or feature analysis program (each speaker will pronounce different things in different ways).

Importantly, speech recognition software often works recursively (repeatedly moving back and forth) rather than in a single pass from the first word to the last. It's a bit like solving a crossword puzzle. The more clues you fill in, the more information you have, and the more constraints there are on the remaining clues. Equally, you may need to revisit some of your early answers, which turn out to be inconsistent with things you find out later. The closer you get to the end of a complete sentence, the easier it is to identify mistakes in the grammar or the syntax—and those could also force you to revisit your guesses at the earlier words in the sentence. In short, there's a lot of back-and-forth in speech recognition: the computational processes work in parallel, and "cooperate," to give the most accurate guess at the words in the spoken utterance.

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What can we use speech recognition for?

We've already touched on a few of the more common applications of speech recognition, including automated telephone switchboards and computerized voice dictation systems. But there are plenty more examples where those came from.

Many of us (whether we know it or not) have cellphones with voice recognition built into them. Back in the late 1990s, state-of-the-art mobile phones offered voice-activated dialing, where, in effect, you recorded a sound snippet for each entry in your phonebook, such as the spoken word "Home," or whatever that the phone could then recognize when you spoke it in future. A few years later, systems like SpinVox became popular helping mobile phone users make sense of voice messages by converting them automatically into text (although a sneaky BBC investigation eventually claimed that some of its state-of-the-art speech automated speech recognition was actually being done by humans in developing countries!).

Today's smartphones make speech recognition even more of a feature. Apple's Siri, Google Assistant ("Hey Google..."), and Microsoft's Cortana are smartphone "personal assistant apps" who'll listen to what you say, figure out what you mean, then attempt to do what you ask, whether it's looking up a phone number or booking a table at a local restaurant. They work by linking speech recognition to complex natural language processing (NLP) systems, so they can figure out not just what you say, but what you actually mean, and what you really want to happen as a consequence. Pressed for time and hurtling down the street, mobile users theoretically find this kind of system a boon—at least if you believe the hype in the TV advertisements that Google and Microsoft have been running to promote their systems. (Google quietly incorporated speech recognition into its search engine some time ago, so you can Google just by talking to your smartphone, if you really want to.)

If you have one of the latest voice-powered electronic assistants, such as Amazon's Echo/Alexa or Google Home, you don't need a computer of any kind (desktop, tablet, or smartphone): you just ask questions or give simple commands in your natural language to a thing that resembles a loudspeaker... and it answers straight back.

Screenshot of Google Assistant being asked: does speech recognition really work?

Screenshot: When I asked Google "does speech recognition really work," it took it three attempts to recognize the question correctly.

Will speech recognition ever take off?

I'm a huge fan of speech recognition. After suffering with repetitive strain injury on and off for some time, I've been using computer dictation to write quite a lot of my stuff for about 15 years, and it's been amazing to see the improvements in off-the-shelf voice dictation over that time.

The early Dragon NaturallySpeaking system I used on a Windows 95 laptop was fairly reliable, but I had to speak relatively slowly, pausing slightly between each word or word group, giving a horribly staccato style that tended to interrupt my train of thought. This slow, tedious one-word-at-a-time approach ("can – you – tell – what – I – am – saying – to – you") went by the name discrete speech recognition. A few years later, things had improved so much that virtually all the off-the-shelf programs like Dragon were offering continuous speech recognition, which meant I could speak at normal speed, in a normal way, and still be assured of very accurate word recognition. When you can speak normally to your computer, at a normal talking pace, voice dictation programs offer another advantage: they give clumsy, self-conscious writers a much more attractive, conversational style: "write like you speak" (always a good tip for writers) is easy to put into practice when you speak all your words as you write them!

Despite the technological advances, I still generally prefer to write with a keyboard and mouse. Ironically, I'm writing this article that way now. Why? Partly because it's what I'm used to. I often write highly technical stuff with a complex vocabulary that I know will defeat the best efforts of all those hidden Markov models and neural networks battling away inside my PC. It's easier to type "hidden Markov model" than to mutter those words somewhat hesitantly, watch "hiccup half a puddle" pop up on screen and then have to make corrections.

Training a speech recognition program to recognize the words 'hidden Markov model.'

Screenshot: You an always add more words to a speech recognition program. Here, I've decided to train the Microsoft Windows built-in speech recognition engine to spot the words 'hidden Markov model.'

Mobile revolution?

You might think mobile devices—with their slippery touchscreens—would benefit enormously from speech recognition: no-one really wants to type an essay with two thumbs on a pop-up QWERTY keyboard. Ironically, mobile devices are heavily used by younger, tech-savvy kids who still prefer typing and pawing at screens to speaking out loud.

Why? All sorts of reasons, from sheer familiarity (it's quick to type once you're used to it—and faster than fixing a computer's goofed-up guesses) to privacy and consideration for others (many of us use our mobile phones in public places and we don't want our thoughts wide open to scrutiny or howls of derision), and the sheer difficulty of speaking clearly and being clearly understood in noisy environments. Recently, I was walking down a street and overheard a small garden party where the sounds of happy laughter, drinking, and discreet background music were punctuated by a sudden grunt of "Alexa play Copacabana by Barry Manilow"—which silenced the conversation entirely and seemed jarringly out of place. Speech recognition has never been so indiscreet.

What you're doing with your computer also makes a difference. If you've ever used speech recognition on a PC, you'll know that writing something like an essay (dictating hundreds or thousands of words of ordinary text) is a whole lot easier than editing it afterwards (where you laboriously try to select words or sentences and move them up or down so many lines with awkward cut and paste commands). And trying to open and close windows, start programs, or navigate around a computer screen by voice alone is clumsy, tedious, error-prone, and slow. It's far easier just to click your mouse or swipe your finger.

Screenshot of Google Live Transcribe running on a Samsung Galaxy smartphone.

Photo: Here I'm using Google's Live Transcribe app to dictate the last paragraph of this article. As you can see, apart from the punctuation, the transcription is flawless, without any training at all. This is the fastest and most accurate speech recognition software I've ever used. It's mainly designed as an accessibility aid for deaf and hard of hearing people, but it can be used for dictation too.

Developers of speech recognition systems insist everything's about to change, largely thanks to natural language processing and smart search engines that can understand spoken queries. ("OK Google...") But people have been saying that for decades now: the brave new world is always just around the corner. According to speech pioneer James Baker, better speech recognition "would greatly increase the speed and ease with which humans could communicate with computers, and greatly speed and ease the ability with which humans could record and organize their own words and thoughts"—but he wrote (or perhaps voice dictated?) those words 25 years ago! Just because Google can now understand speech, it doesn't follow that we automatically want to speak our queries rather than type them—especially when you consider some of the wacky things people look for online.

Humans didn't invent written language because others struggled to hear and understand what they were saying. Writing and speaking serve different purposes. Writing is a way to set out longer, more clearly expressed and elaborated thoughts without having to worry about the limitations of your short-term memory; speaking is much more off-the-cuff. Writing is grammatical; speech doesn't always play by the rules. Writing is introverted, intimate, and inherently private; it's carefully and thoughtfully composed. Speaking is an altogether different way of expressing your thoughts—and people don't always want to speak their minds. While technology may be ever advancing, it's far from certain that speech recognition will ever take off in quite the way that its developers would like. I'm typing these words, after all, not speaking them.

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More technical


Patents set out the technical gritty of how inventions work. There are dozens covering different kinds of speech recognition; here are a few representative examples:


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Woodford, Chris. (2007/2020) Speech recognition software. Retrieved from [Accessed 2024/07/14]


@misc{woodford_speech_recognition, author = "Woodford, Chris", title = "Speech recognition software", publisher = "Explain that Stuff", year = "2007", url = "", urldate = "2023-08-17" }

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